Does essay word count include in text references

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  1. Academic style
  2. What is included in the word count?
  3. ASA Citation Format Guide
  4. Frequently asked questions
  5. Include citations in word count? | RRU Library

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Academic style

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This upper limit includes the introduction, the body, the conclusion and any quotations, but does not include:. Join the conversation You can post now and register later. Reply to this topic Insert image from URL. Go To Topic Listing.

What is included in the word count?

Sign In Sign Up. Where should I put details about edition in a reference to a chapter in an edited book? I've used two chapters from an edited book. Should I reference the whole book in my bibliography as well as the chapters? I've got two items by the same author published in different years in my bibliography.

Should I list the earliest or the latest work first? I'm writing up my dissertation. Should I separate my sources into categories such as books, journals, newspapers, web sites? When and where should I use footnotes? In a legal or academic piece of work you are expected to support your arguments with relevant authoratitive sources.

You should footnote both primary and secondary sources as appropriate wherever necessary. When using sources either by direct quotation or by paraphrasing they should be cited in a footnote. A footnote is marked with a superscript number, 1 which should appear after any punctution and is usually found at the end of a sentence. According to OSCOLA 'a quotation need not be footnoted separately from the name of the source from which it is derived if the two appear in the same sentence.

If one is most relevant you can give it precedence and insert See also before listing the less relevant items.

ASA Citation Format Guide

Are footnotes included in the word count? Footnotes are NOT normally included in the word count of a piece of work at Portsmouth. However, they should be used primarily to give details of sources you have referenced. If you feel it necessary to add clarification or further information you may do so but your lecturer may ignore additional information included in a footnote if they think it belongs in the main body of the text and is being used to reduce your wordcount. Should I reference lecture notes? You must reference anything you use which is not your own work in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism.

However, you will find that many departments at Portsmouth do not allow you to use lecture notes as the source for your essays. You should use the reading list and any slides, notes which your lecturer has given you and turn to the sources listed in these when writing your essay. If your lecturer has not indicated where they got their information, and you want to use it, ask for their source.

Where do I find the details needed in a bibliography? When should I use italics?

Frequently asked questions

Italics are used for the titles of of cases in text and in footnotes, but not in case tables or lists in bibliographies. Italics are always used for the titles of books and similar publications ie those with ISBNs in text, footnotes, and bibliographies. Italics are used for journal titles and serial publications e.

Italics are used for titles of overarching websites e. Italics are not used for titles of statutes, statutory instruments, less formal publications with no commercial publisher or ISBN, or for individual web pages.

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In the latter two cases, the title is indicated by enclosing it in single quotation marks. When do I indicate the court in a case citation? Citations of cases decided before do not require the court, and nor do citations of cases with a neutral citation but where the main citation of the case does not make the court clear you should indicate the court in the citation. In the footnote the court would appaer between the first page of the law report and the pinpoint in round brackets.

In the case list in the bibliography it would appear at the end of the citation after the first page. Capitalise significant words in the title, as on the title page of the original. It is particularly important to rember to capitalise all the significant words in the titles of legislation. What do I do if a publication doesn't have page numbers? What if more than one place of publication is listed?

The edition statement goes in the bracket after the title of the book, immediately before publisher. For example:.

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If you have used a couple of chapters and have referenced these chapters properly in your bibliography, there is no need for another reference to the whole book in the bibliography as well. List the earliest work first and susequent works in chronological order. The second and susequent works can be listed beneath the first with a double em dash instead of the author's name. What if I haven't read the original source?

You should always try to read any source in the original rather than someone else's interpretation and you should never cite a footnote to it from another work. However, if reading the original is not practical, you should link the journal article or book which you have read to that which your source which you have not read cites by using the word "citing". For example the footnote will look something like this the pinpoint page at the end refers to the page you have read, not the pinpoint page in the original source:.

If it is a case citing another case cite the first case, followed by 'citing' and then cite the second case.

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For example In such cases you should make every effort to locate primary sources so they can be included in your bibliography but if the secondary citation is a secondary source you might simply list the item you have actually read. Should I number the items in my bibliography? Each section should be arranged alphabetically. Cases and Legislation are arranged in alphabetical order by title. How do I type a double em dash? To compose these listings you can take the basic footnote entrries and remove their pinpoint references.

Case names should have italicisation removed and be listed alphabetically by title or first significant word. Depending on the nature of your dissertation, it may be necessary to subdivide cases and legislation by jurisdiction. Do not list books, journals, newspapers etc. In a law textbook you should find a Case List at the front of the book.

Include citations in word count? | RRU Library

Login via the Academic pathway, select University of Portsmouth, and at the University of Portsmouth-branded login page, use your University login details. Once you have access Westlaw, use the Cases menu option listed at the top of the page. Use the Party names search box to search for the case you require.

Select your particular case by the date.